History of Reform


The UN established

Fifty-one states ratified the Charter of the United Nations in October 1945, formally establishing the United Nations. The UN Charter had been drafted  during the two month-long United Nations Conference on International Organization based on the proposals from representatives of the Republic of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States of America (USA) at Dumbarton Oaks from August to October 1944. The Charter provides for a veto power to five countries in the hope that it would ensure their participation in the UN and its Security Council. The UN Charter sets forth in Chapter V the composition and functions and powers of the UN Security Council (UNSC), in addition to its voting and procedures details.

UN Security Council reform

This timeline compiled from resources provided by the Global Policy Forum, the Global Center for the Responsibility to Protect,  the Center for UN Reform at  Timeline UN Security Council Reform, 1992- November 2015 and Governing & Managing Change at the United Nations and other sources


Fifty-one states ratify the Charter of the United Nations, formally establishing the United Nations. The UN Charter had been drafted 


The Uniting for Peace resolution UNGA resolution A/RES377 (pioneered by US Secretary of State Dean Acheson to avoid a veto


The UNGA adopts Resolution 1991,“Question of equitable representation on the Security Council and the Economic and Social Council,” which provides


The UNGA passes Resolution 2758, “Restoration of the lawful rights of the People’s Republic of China in the United Nations,”


At its twenty-sixth session, the UNGA, decided to seek the views of Member States on ways and means of enhancing


At its twenty-eighth session, the UNGA drew the attention of the UNSC to the views and suggestions submitted by Member


At its 84th plenary meeting, the UNGA adopts Resolution A/RES/47/62 on the “Question of equitable representation on and increase in


UNGA passes Resolution A/RES/48/26, establishing an “Open-ended Working Group on the Question of Equitable Representation on and Increase in the


US State Department releases a statement that: Germany and Japan should be added to the Council as permanent members; up


UK Ambassador Sir John Weston gives statement on UNSC reform The UK defends the utility and necessity of the veto.


Razali Proposal Razali Ismael of Malaysia, Chairman of the Open-Ended Working Group on the Question of Equitable Representation on and


The US agrees in principle to grant permanent membership to developing countries, either named or rotational; supports Razali Ismael’s goal


Report of the Open-ended Working Group on UNSC reform, General Assembly, 51st Session, supplement 47 (A/51/47).


The UNGA passes Resolution A/RES/53/30, reaffirming that resolutions to expand the membership of the UNSC require at least a two-thirds


Russian Representative defends the veto, supports UNSC expansion


Russian Deputy Granovsky supports UNSC expansion While proceeding firmly from the point that the enlarged Security Council should not exceed


The United Nations Millennium Declaration (A/55/L.2) resolved, in paragraph 30, to intensify efforts to achieve a comprehensive reform of the


Report of the Open-Ended Working Group on the Question of Equitable Representation on and Increase in the Membership of the


The  International  Commission  on Intervention  and  State  Sovereignty (ICISS) release their report the Responsibility to Protect.  According to the Commission, 


UNSC publishes report on UNSC procedural developments The report documents developments in the procedure and working methods of the Security


The High-Level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change chaired by Anand Panyarachun releases A More Secure World: Our Shared Responsibility,


U.S. releases “Fact Sheet” on UNSC reform The US supports expansion of UNSC to a maximum of 20 or 21


The African Union adopt the Common African Position entitled the Ezulwini Consensus In response to the report of the High-Level


Ahead of the summit in New York in September 2005 to review progress since the Millennium Declaration, UNSG Kofi Annan


China publishes position paper on UN reform China advocates for prioritizing the representation of developing countries in the UNSC; giving


G4 present resolution on UNSC reform The G4 (Brazil, India, Japan and Germany) proposes expanding UNSC membership from 15 to


U.S. State Department releases letter on UN reform: U.S. Priorities for a Stronger, More Effective United Nations “The United States


US Ambassador Shirin Tahir-Kheli gives statement on UNSC reform to UNGA: US rejects UNSC reform at this stage, but continues


African Union tables draft on UNSC reform The African Union proposes expanding UNSC membership from 15 to 26, with Africa


Uniting for Consensus presents draft resolution on UNSC Reform The Uniting for Consensus group of 12 countries, also referred to


Uniting for Consensus tables draft resolution on UNSC reform Uniting for Consensus proposes adding 10 non-permanent members immediately eligible for


Follow-up summit meeting to UN 2000 Millennium Summit African Group put forth resolution A/59/L.67, proposing to increase UNSC permanent membership


The UNGA World Summit Outcome Meeting Document UNGA resolution A/RES/60/1 2005 agreed to the following text on the Responsibility to


US Statement on Security Council Reform to UNGA by Ambassador John Bolton Excerpts: We believe that, as clearly stated in


Small five table resolution on UNSC reform The Small Five (Switzerland, Costa Rica, Jordan, Liechtenstein and Singapore) advocate for reform


Note by the President of the Security Council (S/2006/507) Consisting of a letter and annex to enhance the efficiency and


The President  of  the  General  Assembly  invites  the  membership  to  start  consultations  around  five  key  issues,  namely:  categories   of   membership;  


The  President  of  the  General  Assembly appointed five facilitators in their individual capacity to assist her during the consultation process.


The Facilitators present report on UNSC reform The ambassadors of Tunisia, Cyprus, Croatia, Chile and the Netherlands facilitate a UNGA


UNSC adopts note authored by UNGA President The product of months of work by the Council’s Informal Working Group on


Report of the Open-Ended Working Group on the Question of Equitable Representation on and Increase in the Membership of the


In a joint UK-France Summit Declaration, French President Nicolas Sarkozy and British Prime Minister Gordon Brown reaffirm their support for


The UNGA adopts by consensus Decision 62/557 on the ‘Question of equitable representation on and increase in the membership of


Building on the 2005 World Summit Outcome document, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon released his report, Implementing the Responsibility to Protect,


France gives statement on UNSC Reform, Categories of membership In a statement to the General Assembly by Ambassador Jean-Maurice Ripert:


Note by the President of the General Assembly that collates the efforts made by the Chair of the Intergovernmental negotiations,


UK/French release position paper on UNSC reform The UK and France voice support for granting permanent membership to the G4


Chair of IGN Afghanistan Ambassador Zahir Tanin publishes negotiation text The text consists of input submitted by member states.


Small 5 present resolution on UNSC reform Small 5 introduce resolution on reforming UNSC working methods including veto restraint. This


French President  Hollande  proposed, in the  General  Assembly, that “a code of good conduct be defined by the permanent members


Members of the ACT (Accountability, Coherence, Transparency) Group circulate a non-paper on elements for consideration as part of a Code


The President of the General Assembly, Sam K Kutesa, circulates a first version of the framework document populated by by


The President of the General Assembly circulates a first text to form the basis for Intergovernmental Negotiations on the reform


France, with the support of Mexico, launched the Political Declaration on Suspension of Veto Powers in Cases of Mass Atrocity,


Members of the ACT group submit the final text of the Code of Conduct regarding Security Council action against genocide,


UNGA adopts by consensus Decision 69/650 on advancing efforts to reform UNSC On the 14th of September 2015 the General


The Code of Conduct regarding Security Council action against genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes was officially launched. The


Letter from the President of the General Assembly on circulating elements of convergence on two of the five key issues


UNGA Decision 70/559 of 27 July 2016 To “immediately continue intergovernmental negotiations on Security Council reform in informal plenary of


Ahead of the third IGN session early in April 2017 the co-chairs of the Intergovernmental Negotiations on Security Council reform


The African Union Committee of Ten Heads of State and Government on UN reforms held its Fourth Consultative Summit on


The President of the General Assembly transmit a letter from the co-chairs of the Intergovernmental Negotiations on UNSC reform consisting


UNGA President H.E. Miroslav Lajčák appoints H.E. Mr. Kaha Imnadze, Permanent Representative of Georgia, and H.E. Mrs. Lana Zaki Nusseibeh,


‘The Ministers underscored that no reform of the United Nations will be complete without the reform of the Security Council,